8.6 Behavioral model

8.6.1 Overview

This chapter explains the main qualities of behavioral models.

The key functionality of behavioral models is to connect the scenario description with external assets that are dynamically involved during the execution of the scenario.

Once a scenario has been described in ASAM OpenSCENARIO, an implementation should be able to execute the scenario. For such execution, the behavioral characteristics of each actor must be realized. This can be achieved by using models in simulation, with real hardware, or as a combination of both. A scenario could be executed in various ways, including but not limited to:

  • In a simulation, using simple kinematic models

  • In a simulation, using complex dynamic models

  • With a human driver in a driving simulator

  • On a closed proving ground with real vehicles

In any of these cases, there are behavioral aspects of the scenario actors that are implementation-specific and therefore fall beyond the scope of ASAM OpenSCENARIO. But sometimes it may be practical, or even essential, to include some of these characteristics in the scenario description.

ASAM OpenSCENARIO behavioral models allow users to connect their scenario description to implementation-specific details that influence actor behavior. Some possible use cases of behavioral models include but are not limited to:

  • Select a dynamic model to realize the behavioral characteristics of an actor.

  • Adjust the parameters of a dynamic model used in scenario simulation.

  • Assign external modules to control the motion of an actor.

  • Expose internal signals of an actor implementation to use them in the scenario description. Key characteristics

  • All physical actors have behavioral models.

    • Note that such a behavioral model can either refer to the dynamic model that implements the behavior of an actor, to a controller that guides an actor to execute the scenario instructions, or a combination of both.

    • Therefore, a fully-controlled behavioral model is also considered a behavioral model.

  • All behavioral models are implementation-specific.

  • Each actor has an initial_bm field.

    • The initial_bm field can be set using constraints, or it may be left unspecified by the user.

    • The default value is implementation-specific. It supports most of the behavior modifiers as specified.

    • The initial_bm field can be changed on the fly using the action set_bm(<new-bm>).

    • Individual fields inside the initial_bm can also be changed using user-defined actions.

  • The behavioral model for a vehicle could have parameters influencing the behavior of the vehicle. For example:

    • Driver aggressiveness, or other user-defined driver attributes

    • Tire properties, or other attributes affecting the dynamic response of the vehicle

    • Sub-objects (see Section 8.6.2, “Data structures”)

The following information is not contained in the behavioral model:

  • The motion states (position, speed, acceleration) of the actor. These are part of the standard ASAM OpenSCENARIO domain model.

8.6.2 Data structures Defining a specific behavioral model

An ASAM OpenSCENARIO behavioral model is a struct that can be expanded by the user.

Code 54. Behavioral models struct
struct behavioral_model:
    bm_engine: bm_engine  # Reference to the "behavioral model engine"

Based on this base behavioral_model class, users are free to define their own classes by inheriting from it.

Code 55. User-defined behavioral model classes
struct vehicle_bm inherits behavioral_model:
    # More fields defined by the users...

struct fully_controlled_vehicle_bm inherits vehicle_bm:
    # More fields defined by the users...

How to define a specific new behavioral model:

Code 56. Specifying a new behavioral model
struct sumo_idm_bm inherits behavioral_model:
    tau: time
    # More fields defined by the users... Behavioral model engine

Behavioral models have a reference to their behavioral model engine.

  • The behavioral model engine provides the actual implementation of the behavioral model.

  • The bm_engine field is a reference to the ASAM OpenSCENARIO object representing the bm_engine, whose content is implementation-specific.

  • An example is keep(my_bm.bm_engine == bm_engines.sumo_bm_engine_object). Splitting into sub-structs

You can split the vehicle_bm into multiple sub-structs.

Please note that the following code is just an example. The ASAM OpenSCENARIO domain model does not define an obligatory structure of vehicle_bm.

Code 57. Splitting into sub-structs
da_model, lld_model, sb_model, lc_model: behavioral_model

struct vehicle_bm inherits behavioral_model

extend vehicle_bm:
    driver_like_attributes: da_model
    low_level_dynamics: lld_model
    signaling_behavior: sb_model
    lateral_controller: lc_model

These sub-structs could refer to aspects of the behavioral model. Users and implementers are free to define the structure and functionality that suits their particular needs.

Even if the behavioral model is split into sub-structs, they are still encapsulated within a single behavioral model object. Because of that, the user can set the behavioral model using a single constraint or action (see Section 8.6.3, “Examples”).

8.6.3 Examples Using initial_bm and set_bm()

This example changes the whole behavioral model of v2 at once.

Code 58. Changing the behavioral model for a vehicle
scenario top.foo:
    my_sumo_bm: sumo_idm_bm with:
        keep(tau == 2.2s)
    my_sumo_bm_2: sumo_idm_bm with:
        keep(tau == 3.0s)

    car: vehicle with:
        keep(initial_bm == my_sumo_bm)
                   # This is the initial BM for v2
    do serial:
        car.drive() # Using the initial BM my_sumo_bm
        car.set_bm(my_sumo_bm_2) # Change the BM for my_sumo_bm_2
        car.drive() # Using the new BM Using specific set_bm methods

Sometimes you may want to change just a single field of the behavioral model, like the signaling_behavior sub-struct or even just the signaling_behavior.avoid_signaling fields.

This is possible because of specific set_bm_*() methods for the different fields.

Now you can change the previous example:

Code 59. Without set_bm method
v2.set_bm(my_sumo_bm_2) # Change the BM for v2
Code 60. With set_bm method
v2.set_bm_avoid_signaling(true)  # Set that specific field to true

You can also use v2.set_bm_signaling_behavior() to set the whole struct. This replaces either the previous value of the struct or the null value that was there before. Vehicles in a vehicle group

This is how the behavioral model for vehicles in a vehicle group can be set.

Code 61. Vehicles in a vehicle group
g: vehicle_group
for c in g.cars:
     keep(c.initial_bm == my_bm) Motion controller

This is how a user can set a behavioral model to establish the status of longitudinal and lateral motion control for an actor.

Code 62. Motion controller
motion_control inherits behavioral_model:
    longitudinal: bool
    lateral: bool

my_controller: motion_control with:
    keep(longitudinal == True)
    keep(lateral == True)

my_controlled_car: vehicle with:
    keep(initial_bm == my_controller) Assistive device

This is how the behavioral model for vehicles in a vehicle group can be set.

Code 63. Vehicles in a vehicle group
adas_device inherits behavioral_model:
    driver_setting: enum[off, on]
    current_status: enum[off, standby, engaged]

my_adas: adas_device

adas_car: vehicle with:
    keep(initial_bm == my_adas)

do serial: